For the purpose of this document, the terms defined in the ADA Standards section 106.5 have the indicated meaning shown below. Terms not defined in 106.5 or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act, but specifically defined in a referenced standard, shall have the specified meaning from the referenced standard unless otherwise stated. The meaning of terms not specifically defined in section 106.5 or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act, or in referenced standards, shall be as defined by collegiate dictionaries in the sense that the context implies. Words, terms and phrases used in the singular include the plural and those used in the plural include the singular.
Accessible. A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that complies with this part.
Accessible Means of Egress. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any point in a building or facility that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizontal exit, or a public way.
Addition. An expansion, extension, or increase in the gross floor area or height of a building or facility.
Administrative Authority. A governmental agency that adopts or enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction, or alteration of buildings and facilities.
Alteration. A change to a building or facility that affects or could affect the usability of the building or facility or portion thereof. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, resurfacing of circulation paths or vehicular ways, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.
Amusement Attraction. Any facility, or portion of a facility, located within an amusement park or theme park which provides amusement without the use of an amusement device. Amusement attractions include, but are not limited to, fun houses, barrels, and other attractions without seats.
Amusement Ride. A system that moves persons through a fixed course within a defined area for the purpose of amusement.
Amusement Ride Seat. A seat that is built-in or mechanically fastened to an amusement ride intended to be occupied by one or more passengers.
Area of Sport Activity. That portion of a room or space where the play or practice of a sport occurs.
Assembly Area. A building or facility, or portion thereof, used for the purpose of entertainment, educational or civic gatherings, or similar purposes. For the purposes of these requirements, assembly areas include, but are not limited to, classrooms, lecture halls, courtrooms, public meeting rooms, public hearing rooms, legislative chambers, motion picture houses, auditoria, theaters, playhouses, dinner theaters, concert halls, centers for the performing arts, amphitheaters, arenas, stadiums, grandstands, or convention centers.
Assistive Listening System (ALS). An amplification system utilizing transmitters, receivers, and coupling devices to bypass the acoustical space between a sound source and a listener by means of induction loop, radio frequency, infrared, or direct-wired equipment.
Boarding Pier. A portion of a pier where a boat is temporarily secured for the purpose of embarking or disembarking.
Boat Launch Ramp. A sloped surface designed for launching and retrieving trailered boats and other water craft to and from a body of water.
Boat Slip. That portion of a pier, main pier, finger pier, or float where a boat is moored for the purpose of berthing, embarking, or disembarking.
Building. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.
Catch Pool. A pool or designated section of a pool used as a terminus for water slide flumes.
Characters. Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.
Children’s Use. Describes spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.
Circulation Path. An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel, including but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, elevators, platform lifts, ramps, stairways, and landings.
Closed-Circuit Telephone. A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entry to a facility.
Commercial Facility. Businesses such as manufacturers or wholesalers are called "commercial facilities." Because they do not serve the public directly, they are not public accommodations and they do not have to follow all the ADA rules for public accommodations.
Common Use. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces, or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.
Cross Slope. The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).
Curb Ramp. A short ramp cutting through a curb or built up to it.
Detectable Warning. A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn of hazards on a circulation path.
Direct Threat. A significant risk to the health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated at a place of business. Businesses are not required to change their policies and procedures in any way that would cause a fundamental alteration in the nature of their goods or services, would undermine safe operation of the business, or would cause a “direct threat” to the health or safety of others.
Element. An architectural or mechanical component of a building, facility, space, or site.
Elevated Play Component. A play component that is approached above or below grade and that is part of a composite play structure consisting of two or more play components attached or functionally linked to create an integrated unit providing more than one play activity.
Employee Work Area. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and used only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.
Entrance. Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility used for the purpose of entering. An entrance includes the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule if provided, the entry door or gate, and the hardware of the entry door or gate.
Facility. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements, and pedestrian routes or vehicular ways located on a site.
Fundamental Alteration. A "fundamental alteration" is a change [to a busines] that is so significant that it alters the essential nature of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations offered. Businesses are not required to change their policies and procedures in any way that would cause a “fundamental alteration” in the nature of their goods or services, would undermine safe operation of the business, or would cause a “direct threat” to the health or safety of others.
Gangway. A variable-sloped pedestrian walkway that links a fixed structure or land with a floating structure. Gangways that connect to vessels are not addressed by this document.
Golf Car Passage. A continuous passage on which a motorized golf car can operate.
Ground Level Play Component. A play component that is approached and exited at the ground level.
Key Station. Rapid and light rail stations, and commuter rail stations, as defined under criteria established by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR 37.47 and 49 CFR 37.51, respectively.
Mail Boxes. Receptacles for the receipt of documents, packages, or other deliverable matter. Mailboxes include, but are not limited to, post office boxes and receptacles provided by commercial mail-receiving agencies, apartment facilities, or schools.
Marked Crossing. A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.
Mental Impairment. Any mental or psychological disorder, such as an intellectual disability (formerly termed “mental retardation”), organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.
Mezzanine. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or levels are located. Mezzanines have sufficient elevation that space for human occupancy can be provided on the floor below.
Occupant Load. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion of a building is designed.
Operable Part. A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the element.
Physical Impairment. Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more body systems, such as neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, immune, circulatory, hemic, lymphatic, skin, and endocrine.
Pictogram. A pictorial symbol that represents activities, facilities, or concepts.
Play Area. A portion of a site containing play components designed and constructed for children.
Play Component. An element intended to generate specific opportunities for play, socialization, or learning. Play components are manufactured or natural; and are stand-alone or part of a composite play structure.
Private Building or Facility. A place of public accommodation or a commercial building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 28 CFR part 36 or a transportation building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.45.
Public Accomodation. Businesses and non-profit organizations that provide goods and services to the public are called "public accommodations." This includes pharmacies, grocers, other retailers, restaurants, hotels, banks, medical practices, legal offices, dry cleaners, night clubs, movie theaters, art galleries, health spas, amusement parks, schools, child care centers, and many other businesses.
Public Building or Facility. A building or facility or portion of a building or facility designed, constructed, or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity subject to title II of the ADA and 28 CFR part 35 or to title II of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.41 or 37.43.
Public Entrance. An entrance that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance.
Public Use. Interior or exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are made available to the public. Public use may be provided at a building or facility that is privately or publicly owned.
Public Way. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3050 mm).
Qualified Historic Building or Facility. A building or facility that is listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate State or local law.
Ramp. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 1:20.
Residential Dwelling Unit. A unit intended to be used as a residence, that is primarily long-term in nature. Residential dwelling units do not include transient lodging, inpatient medical care, licensed long-term care, and detention or correctional facilities.
Restricted Entrance. An entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis but not public use and that is not a service entrance.
Running Slope. The slope that is parallel to the direction of travel (see cross slope).
Self-Service Storage. Building or facility designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service basis.
Service Entrance. An entrance intended primarily for delivery of goods or services.
Site. A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.
Soft Contained Play Structure. A play structure made up of one or more play components where the user enters a fully enclosed play environment that utilizes pliable materials, such as plastic, netting, or fabric.
Space. A definable area, such as a room, toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.
Story. That portion of a building or facility designed for human occupancy included between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. A story containing one or more mezzanines has more than one floor level.
Structural Frame. The columns and the girders, beams, and trusses having direct connections to the columns and all other members that are essential to the stability of the building or facilityas a whole.
Tactile. An object that can be perceived using the sense of touch.
Technically Infeasible. With respect to an alteration of a building or a facility, something that has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features that are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements.
Teeing Ground. In golf, the starting place for the hole to be played.
Transfer Device. Equipment designed to facilitate the transfer of a person from a wheelchair or other mobility aid to and from an amusement ride seat.
Transient Lodging. A building or facility containing one or more guest room(s) for sleeping that provides accommodations that are primarily short-term in nature. Transient lodging does not includeresidential dwelling units intended to be used as a residence, inpatient medical care facilities, licensed long-term care facilities, detention or correctional facilities, or private buildings or facilities that contain not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that are actually occupied by the proprietor as the residence of such proprietor.
Transition Plate. A sloping pedestrian walking surface located at the end(s) of a gangway.
TTY. An abbreviation for teletypewriter. Machinery that employs interactive text-based communication through the transmission of coded signals across the telephone network. TTYs may include, for example, devices known as TDDs (telecommunication display devices or telecommunication devices for deaf persons) or computers with special modems. TTYs are also called text telephones.
Undue Hardship. When discussed within the concept of reasonable accomodation, undue hardship means “significant difficulty or expense.” Undue hardship must be based on an individualized assessment of current circumstances that show that a specific reasonable accommodation would cause significant difficulty or expense. An employer may not claim undue hardship because the cost of an accommodation is high in relation to an employee's salary. An employer does not have to provide a reasonable accommodation that would cause an "undue hardship."
Use Zone. The ground level area beneath and immediately adjacent to a play structure or play equipment that is designated by ASTM F 1487 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) for unrestricted circulation around the play equipment and where it is predicted that a user would land when falling from or exiting the play equipment.
Vehicular Way. A route provided for vehicular traffic, such as in a street, driveway, or parking facility.
Walk. An exterior prepared surface for pedestrian use, including pedestrian areas such as plazas and courts.
Wheelchair Space. Space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.
Work Area Equipment. Any machine, instrument, engine, motor, pump, conveyor, or other apparatus used to perform work. As used in this document, this term shall apply only to equipment that is permanently installed or built-in in employee work areas. Work area equipment does not include passenger elevators and other accessible means of vertical transportation.